The learning objectives are the starting point of the development of any learning activity. Learning objectives are a list of things the workers must be able to do after they have completed the training.
Once you’ve created your learning objectives, create content that covers the objectives. In addition, the following should assess only the workers’ understanding of the objectives performed during training to evaluate your workers’ comprehension of the training:
There are specific reasons why learning outcomes and objectives should be well thought through and clearly stated from the outset and before any design activities take place. These are:
Identifying outcomes is an effective way to review curriculum and content. This leads to a more balanced and well-sequenced curriculum.
It helps design appropriate assessment and evaluation tools that accurately reflect the curriculum.
By reviewing the needs assessment, trainers know what participants know and need, and the learning outcomes help inform everyone as to what new materials or skills they are intended to learn.
Trainers are able to evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching. Have the outcomes been achieved?
An instructional shift from teaching to learning is facilitated. The focus is on the learner rather than the trainer.
Participants will know exactly what they are expected to learn, thus avoiding ambiguity.
If you build participant learning assessments into the training, participants will know exactly how their learning will be assessed.
Participants begin to take more responsibility for their own learning when they know what they are expected to do and what standard they are expected to achieve.
Design your training materials
There are four major steps to any training design process:
STEP 1: It is much better to sketch out the whole curriculum before going into the specifics. Think about the big picture:
What is the major aim of the training?
What is it trying to achieve? WRITE a goal or aim statement. This should be a broad, general statement, such as; participants will be able to understand the importance of disaster risk reduction along side preparedness and response.
STEP 2: CONSIDER the overall scope of training. Specify the major topics or sections of the training by brainstorming (with others) and making a list.
What sort of things do we want the participants to learn? At this level the outcome statements will be quite broad referring to such areas that cover the whole subject. For example: It is anticipated that participants who successfully complete the training will be able to:
Establish a common understanding of the tenets on which lie the foundations of disaster risk reduction (DRR).
Develop a better understanding of preparedness, response and recovery as integral to disaster risk reduction.
Illustrate the role of different stakeholders in DRR, the integrated nature between the sectors in DRR and the importance of coordination between stakeholders.
Introduce and discuss the already put in place mechanisms for reducing disaster losses and risk management, focused on their region.
Build a network among the participants by sharing the experience, existing know-how and team building.
STEP 3: The next step is to IDENTIFY specifics. Brainstorm and create a list. This is where we will write clear, precise statements detailing what the participants will actually be doing.
What specific, detailed knowledge, information, or skills do we expect participants to learn from the training?
What cross cutting issues need to be included and which ones to be prioritised (gender, environment, etc.)? For example: It is anticipated that participants who successfully complete the training will be able to:
Acquire the conceptual basis to appreciate the complexities of vulnerability, risk and disaster risk management.
Develop a better ability to engage with and relate to disaster professionals from various disciplines in a field situation.
Increased ability to use tools and mechanisms to analyse hazards, vulnerability and capacities and acquire basic skills in risk identification and assessment.
Identify strategies for building a disaster risk reduction capacity.
Ability to advocate and promote DRR for government buy-in.
STEP 4: THINK about how participants can demonstrate their learning, i.e., exactly what they should be able to do. Brainstorm and generate a list of ideas for how participants can demonstrate what, how much, and how well they have learned.
Source: This information has been sourced from a great training development guide from: www.msb.se
As you roll out training for your workers, one thing that you have to take into consideration is Adult Learning Principles. Because you are training adults, these principles assist in making training more effective for them.
Adult learners are:
Self directing – they have existing knowledge, experience and opinions. If they cannot appreciate the pupose or value, they will be reluctant to engage in the training
Relevance – The immediate use of the learning needs to be clearly understood by the learner. They need to see ‘what’s in it for them’
Experience – select case scenarios and examples that they can relate to
Using all of their senses – Adult learners need multi-sensory learning and teaching (Hands on activities )
Practice – The more an adult learner can practice new skills, the more transformational impact the training will have
Involvement – Adults need to feel as though they have a sense of responsibility, control and decision making over their learning
Let us look at the ways to both prevent gas leaks in the workplace, and what we can do to detect – and react to – them in time to prevent similar such tragedies.
How to prevent Gas leaks
Implement the correct safe work procedures for gas installations, and confined space work procedures.
Lock out gas lines if you are able to.
Test the atmosphere before and during maintenance.
Purge areas where gas is known to accumulate.
Ensure your gas pipes run outside as much as possible.
There should be minimal joints in the pipework.
Always test pipes for leaks after you’ve installed them.
If you have to run gas pipes in an enclosed space, install a gas leak detection system with sensors, an alarm and an automatic gas shut-off valve.
If gas pipes have to run in an enclosed vertical shaft, install an extractor fan so that the shaft is continuously fully vented.
Make allowances for movement for gas pipes laid in cement floor screeds.
A competent person should conduct periodic checks to ensure there are no leaks.
Use correct pipes and jointing methods: MDPE (yellow plastic) underground, galvanised steel and copper above ground.
Most gas leaks occur at pipe joints. Ensure you’ve implemented the correct jointing method for pipe system, such as fusion joints for large MDPE pipes, screwed joints for steel pipes and compression and capillary jointing methods for copper pipes.
You must also use gas PTFE tape (which is thicker than normal) for screwed and compression fittings.
Only ever employ approved operatives for gas installations.
A qualified technician should inspect your gas equipment at least once a year.
Keep all combustible materials (chemicals, papers, boxes, solvents, etc.) at a safe distance from this equipment.
Make sure your entire facility is adequately vented, and that all pipes and flues are in good condition.
Follow all manufacturers’ recommendations for cleaning and maintaining natural gas equipment.
Install carbon monoxide detectors in all areas of your facility.
Never hang tools or other devices on natural gas pipes and meters.
Check pilot lights on gas appliances to make sure they are burning blue. A very small amount of yellow or orange is also acceptable. Appliances with steady yellow or orange burning flames should be serviced by a qualified professional immediately.
How to detect a gas leak
If a gas pipe is damaged (or if you smell gas in the area):
Do not turn any electrical switches on or off (e.g. ignition switches).
Do not operate any plant or equipment.
Move people away from, and upwind of, the affected area.
Prevent smoking, the use of naked flames, the use of mobile phones or other ignition sources near the leak.
Report the leak/damage immediately to the proper authorities. Remember to provide accurate information on your location and the nature of the incident.
When you have completed the above:
Do not attempt to repair the damage.
Do not cover up a damaged main or service. This may lead to the gas travelling through the ducts, sewers, chambers or voids and potentially building up inside the premises or confined space.
Do not turn off any gas valves in the road or footpath (you may cause further problems by doing so).
Remember: Gas leaks don’t occur in isolation
Gas leaks are often attendant hazards to working within a confined space. It is impossible to provide a comprehensive list of confined spaces, as some may always qualify as one, whereas others may only become a confined space during their construction, fabrication or subsequent modification.
Apart from potential gas risks, other hazards in confined spaces include:
Poor air quality
Process-related hazards (e.g. residual chemicals)
Safety hazards (e.g. moving parts, slips and falls)
Extreme temperatures (both surface and atmospheric)
Bulk material that shifts or collapses
Dust present in very high presentations (e.g. flour in silos)
You must carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to decide the measures necessary for working safely. For work in confined spaces, this means: